The links between Autism, Dyslexia, Care Leavers, Homelessness and Young Offenders

Undiscovered Needs, Unsupported Needs and Social Exclusion

- It All Links Together

Care Leavers (adults who were formerly in foster care)

32% of care leavers not in education, employment or training[i]

53% of Care Leavers have a learning disability[ii]

43% have autism[iii]

13% of young care leavers are currently in custody[iv]

Leaving care can exacerbate social exclusion[v]


Young Offenders

15%  of Young Offenders have an Autism Diagnosis[i]

60 - 90% of Young Offenders have Communication Difficulties[ii]

25 - 50%of offenders are likely to have dyslexic difficulties[iii]

52% of prison population have literacy difficulties[iv]

Leaving prison can exacerbate social exclusion and be a risk factor leading to sex work[v]


Sex Workers

39% of Sex Workers have had no training or formal qualifications[i]

A third of sex workers had left school before 14;  those in care had left earlier[ii]

Social exclusion is the leading cause of entrance into sex work[iii]

One third of Sex workers had been looked after children[iv]



52% of homeless young people showed symptoms of specific learning difficulties[i]

12% of homeless people are Autistic[ii]

9 out of 14 of Devon's Entrenched Rough Sleepers are Autistic[iii]

41% of homeless people have served a prison sentence[iv]

On Street sex workers have high rates of homelessness[v]


Care Leavers References

[i]DfE Care Leavers in England Data Pak 2012

[ii] VOYPIC 2017

[iii] VOYPIC 2017

[iv]DfE Care Leavers in England Data Pak 2012

[v]Tonybee hall, 2007; Fitzpatrick, Bramley and Johnsen, 2012


Young Offenders References

[i]HUGHES, Nathan & CHITSABESAN, Prathiba (2015) Supporting young people with neurodevelopmental impairment


[iii]Dyslexia SpLD Trust

[iv] Dyslexia SpLD Trust

[v]Tonybee hall, 2007; Fitzpatrick, Bramley and Johnsen, 2012


Sex Workers References

[i]Bindel et al. (2012)

[ii]Jeal and Salisbury (2004)

[iii] Balfour 2014

[iv]Jeal and Salisbury (2004)


Homelessness references

[i] Barwick and Siegel (1996)

[ii]Churchard et al 2018

[iii]Pritchard,C 2010

[iv] Crisis

[v]Jeal and Salisbury, 2004 and 2007






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page last updated: 16/03/2019

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